Wednesday, July 10, 2013

Low Serum Testosterone and Mortality - Part 2

Low Serum Testosterone
Low Serum Testosterone
In the industrialized world, men experience an earlier onset of cardiovascular disease and a life expectancy 5 to 10 years shorter than women.  Another study evaluated 4152 men and women, the evaluating “Low testosterone concentrations in men contribute to the gender gap in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality”.
The results indicated that men were uniformly at higher risk of incidence for cardiovascular morbidity, including being overweight, hypertension, high cholesterol, metabolic syndrome, and type II diabetes than women.
One particular study examined the association between serum testosterone and estradiol and all-cause mortality in elderly men.  In the conclusion of this study, which included a mean follow-up of 4.5 years, 383 deaths occurred.  Risk of death nearly doubled in subjects with low levels of both testosterone and estradiol compared with other subjects.  In conclusion, it was noted that elderly men with low serum testosterone and estradiol have increased risk of mortality.
The study noted that circulating estradiol levels in older men are low but measurable, exceeding the levels found in postmenopausal women.  It was noted that approximately 80% of circulating estradiol in men derived from androgens and therefore serum levels of estradiol and testosterone were significantly associated.  Studies investigating aromatase or estrogen receptor deficiency in males demonstrated that estradiol had important physiological effects on bone maturation and peak bone mass in younger men.  The role of estradiol in a Swedish Osteoporotic study revealed that low serum estradiol was associated with an increased risk of fracture.
In this study testosterone levels as well as estradiol levels in men were assessed.  Low levels of both testosterone and estradiol independently predicted all-cause mortality in these models.  In subjects with low levels of both testosterone and estradiol, risk of death approximately doubled when adjusted for age, BMI, physical activity and smoking.
The result of the study indicated that risk of death increased in elderly men in the lowest quartile of both testosterone and estradiol levels.  It was also noted that testosterone and estradiol predicted death independently of each other, and risk for death nearly doubled (96% increase) in subjects with both low testosterone and low estradiol compared with subjects within other quartiles of both hormones.

Two major hypotheses regarding the association between low sex steroid levels and mortality were put forward:
± Low sex steroid levels caused or worsened disease and thereby caused death.
± Low sex steroid levels are a result of disease and therefore associated with death.
In this case the second hypothesis, that is the low testosterone/low estradiol levels, is supported by evidence that both acute and chronic illnesses reduce testosterone production.  In acute illness, testosterone is often profoundly depressed at the testicular level and indirectly through gonadotropin suppression.  Therefore, low serum sex steroids may be considered a general marker of poor health and associated with increased mortality risk.
In this study, the association between estradiol/testosterone and mortality remained significant even after deaths were excluded that had occurred within the first 3 years of follow-up, thus arguing against a substantial role of prevalent diseases that otherwise might have been observed during observation.  Therefore, low testosterone levels contribute to frailty that affects the individual’s capability to recover after any disease and thereby affects survival.
In conclusion, low serum testosterone and estradiol were associated with increased risk of death in older Swedish men.  Subjects with low testosterone and estradiol were found to have an increased risk of mortality. Thus, both low testosterone and low estradiol may serve as markers of mortality risk in elderly men.

For more information, please visit us at the Southwest Age Intervention Institute blog.


  1. Great post!!! In really had a great time reading it!!! It was really informative, thanks for sharing!
    Bio identical hormones

  2. If you are not getting any satisfaction, done and need to search for the perfect love partner who can stand in your good or bad times then come here as our Escorts Service in Gurgaon. Their attractive eyes, Sexy curves & pink lips are enough to make you mad for them and they like to wear hot outfits for you which you love to see them and it also creates love attraction in you toward them. Sexy, Hot & Model Quality Call Girls in Gurgaon available, A good escort service in Gurgaon will have plenty of reviews online about it.

  3. On the off chance that you are procuring an autonomous Aerocity Escorts, you need to manage that Call Girls in Vasant Kunj itself. Brighter your life with attractive and venereal Escorts Service in Vasant Kunj available to satisfy your lustful longings. Maybe you are searching for the high-class sexual pleasure in Aerocity. Hence give us a chance to serve you the best services according to your needs.

  4. The Escorts who work at Call Girls in Vasant Kunj have a raised degree of guidance and are thusly essentially loosening up and capitalizing on their organization. There are many types of Escorts Service in Vasant Kunj. Some of them are called centerfold, beauticians, lap dancers, and beauticians. As these agencies are out of various areas, you can choose one according to your liking.

  5. To hire our Call Girls in Vasant Kunj you can speak with our call girl representative over the call. It is very easy to get escort service in Aerocity now. Call us now!! They love to make relationships for the night with Indian men and that is why they join our escort agency to provide foreign Escorts Service in Vasant Kunj. These ladies are referred to as Foreign escorts in Aerocity.

  6. These bold and confident sexy girls from the house of Sexy Call Girls in Vasant Kunj, Delhi also have some of the most delicious figures that often make our clients drool over them the moment they arrive at your doorstep! These hot and sexy girls are well in demand by our long list of loyal clientele because of the first class sexual services each one of these babes from the house of Escorts Service in Vasant Kunj, Delhi render to their clients.

  7. Escorts Service in Vasant Kunj, here are incredibly evolved and they appreciate the customer’s needs since this city has every sort of individual and the fight is there for everyone. Our escort knows this reality, so they give you 100% satisfaction guaranteed. We Provide best Escorts Service in Vasant Kunj that will you never forget and come again and again. Our Agency maintain the quality and an immense collection which contains a range of categories of escort girls. What you need to is to just come to this city Delhi any time you like and get it to touch with them Call Girls in Vasant Kunj.